HIV Vaccine: Where we Are Standing to Discover Vaccines for HIV/AIDS

HIV-Aids - United States (on December 22, 2014 12:38 PM)


 

An HIV vaccine is a vaccine that would be used to protect a human from suspected HIV/AIDS virus which is not yet entered in body, including a vaccine that could be used for therapeutic effect for individual who have or later contract HIV/AIDS.

 

Many researches and trials have been working to test HIV vaccines worldwide. These researches and programs are based on managing clinical trials seek to create one good HIV vaccine that can work, but unfortunately, there is no effective HIV vaccine yet discovered to deal this deadly virus, because HIV has unique ways of evading the immune system and human body is failed of mounting an effective immune response.

 

Human race is losing hopes when we see 2.1 million new individuals are infected by HIV in 2013 and yet we’re exploring whether an HIV vaccine is ever be possible to stop this deadly disease or not.

 

However, not to worried about much, because there is a hope that vaccine for may be possible. There are evidences that HIV vaccine can be created. One of the evidence is that monoclonal antibodies (MAb) proven that the human body can defend itself against HIV after experiments. Moreover, certain individuals remain “ok” for decades after infected by HIV virus.

 

Experiments for HIV Vaccine

 

Vaccines have been our best weapon against the world’s deadliest infectious diseases such as smallpox, polio, measles, and yellow fever etc. As there has been no vaccine discovered to protect human body from HIV virus, trials have been made to experiment medicine on potential candidates time to time.

 

Potential candidates for HIV antibodies and HIV early stage result are selected and then accounted for clinical trials. However, there are many stages for experimenting to discover HIV vaccines. The stages are mostly formed between Pre-clinical Researches to Clinical Researches. Some of the main authorized way working under National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) are as follow,

 

Pre-clinical Research

  • Basic Vaccine Discovery

  • HIV Vaccine Designs and Strategies

  • Evaluation of Vaccine Candidates in Animal Models

 

Clinical Research

  • NIAID HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks and Cohort Studies

  • Clinical Trials Process

  • Measuring Vaccine Safety and Efficacy in Clinical Trials

  • HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

  • Partners and Collaborators

  • Research Highlights

 

Moreover, the candidate having HIV infection that is experimented, some of them showed some efficacy and some do not. Studies in RV 144 showed some efficacy. RV 144 is Thai trial for HIV clinical trials. These experiments in Thailand begin in 2003 and reported a first positive result in 2009. However, there were many trials which showed no efficacy, such as the STEP study and HVTN 505 trials etc.

 

RV 144 trials were the world’s largest clinical trials ever held for HIV vaccine. The trial included over 16,000 volunteers candidates. And another positive thing about these trials was that first time ever any trial showed positive results.

 

The already developed vaccines, namely ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX, were used in combination in these trials. The first vaccine prim an immune response against HIV and the second used as a booster once the immunity waned.

 

Although the vaccine was not proven to be cure for HIV/AIDS infected patients, however, the vaccine was found to be safe, well tolerated, and suitable for large-scale further research.

 

Classification of all Possible HIV vaccines

The classifications of all the possible HIV vaccines are divided into seven phases. These classifications are theoretical as none of the vaccines proven to be working against HIV virus. Therefore, the targets of the vaccine are the following phases of the HIV virion cycle:

  • Phase I. Free state

  • Phase II. Attachment

  • Phase III. Penetration

  • Phase IV. Uncoating

  • Phase V. Replication

  • Phase VI. Assembling

  • Phase VII. Releasing

 

Possible Approaches for the HIV Vaccine

The possible approach for the HIV vaccine covers all the seven phases from Free State phase to Releasing phase. Filtering virions from blood, catching the virion and destroying or damaging the virion or its parts are exercised as possible approaches for the HIV vaccine. Some of the details are given following.

 

Filtering virions from blood in Phase I

  • Biological approach for removing the HIV virions from the blood

  • Chemical approach for removing the HIV virions from the blood

  • Physical approach for removing the HIV virions from the blood

 

Approaches to catching the virion in Phase I-III, VI, VII

  • Phagocytosis of the HIV virions

  • Chemical or organic based capture of HIV virions

  • Chemical or organic attachments to the virion

 

Inhibiting process of phases

  • Biological, chemical or physical approach to inhibit the Attachment

  • Biological, chemical or physical approach to inhibit the Penetration

  • Biological, chemical or physical approach to inhibit the Uncoating

  • Biological, chemical or physical approach to inhibit the Integration

  • Biological, chemical or physical approach to inhibit the Replication including introducing a mutation into the HIV

  • Biological, chemical or physical approach to inhibit the Assembling

  • Biological, chemical or physical approach to inhibit (capping) the Releasing

 

Inhibiting the functionality of infected cells in Phase VI- VII

  • Inhibiting the metabolism of infected cells

  • Inhibiting the energy exchange of infected cells

 

 

Moreover, blocking the replication in phase-l and damaging the virion or its parts in phase-l to Vll are also possible approaches for the HIV vaccine. To block the replication, Insertion into blood chemical or organic compounds take place in that binds to the gp120. Whereas, to destroying or damaging the virion or its parts have different classification of methods. Mainly divided into two classification of methods i.e. by nature of method and by damaging target of the HIV virion structure.

 

By nature of method

  • Physical methods in Phase I-VII

  • Chemical and biological methods in Phase I-VII

 

By damaging target of the HIV virion structure

  • Damaging the Docking Glycoprotein gp120 in Phase I-III, VI, VII

  • Damaging the Transmembrane Glycoprotein gp41 in Phase I-III, VI, VII

  • Damaging the virion matrix in Phase I-III, VI, VII

  • Damaging the virion Capsid in Phase I-III, VI, VII

  • Damaging the Reverse Transcriptase in Phase I-VII

  • Damaging the RNA in Phase I-VII

 

What to Do in Future?

 


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