What is Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes - United States (on December 10, 2014 07:23 AM)

Diabetes Mellitus, usually known as diabetes a chronic condition that affects the blood sugar levels in the body and increase them to an abnormal level.  Diabetes Mellitus is usually results when the pancreas malfunctions and does not make enough insulin or when the cells do not respond to the insulin produced.


There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:


Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

This occurs when the pancreas fails to produce the required level of insulin for the body


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

This occurs when the cells do not respond properly to the insulin produced


Gestational Diabetes

This occurs in pregnant women due to pregnancy 


Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus


Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Some of the very serious initial symptoms of type1 diabetes or when a person has high blood sugar levels may include:

Polydipsia; excessive thirst
Polyuria; urinating excessively
Hunger pangs
Blurred vision
Feelings of tiredness
Loss of weight
Cotton mouth
Foul Breath


Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes develops slowly in people and many type 2 diabetes patients go unaware of the fact that they have the condition for years. Many symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are the same as type1 diabetes symptoms and can further include:

Itching around the penis and the vagina
Wounds that heal slowly
Patches of dark skin

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus


Diabetes Mellitus is developed when the body either stops or produces insufficient insulin for the body or when the cells in the body show insulin resistance. The lack of insulin results in Diabetes Mellitus type 1 and when the cells show insulin resistance that condition is called Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Normally when the cells show resistance to insulin the body produces more insulin which overcome the resistance but in the condition of Diabetes Mellitus the production of insulin decreases with time and eventually stops which results in hyperglycemia.


Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus


Diabetes mellitus is distinguished by regular or continual hyperglycemia, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:

Fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) 
Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test 
Symptoms of hyperglycemia and casual plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) 
Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) ≥ 6.5%.

Prevention Against Diabetes Mellitus

There is no known cure for type 1 diabetes or type2 diabetes. Moreover no preventive measures can be taken to avoid type1 diabetes, but, type2 diabetes can often be prevented by a person who exercises regularly, follows a healthy diet and has a normal body weight. Foods that can help a person prevent diabetes include; whole grains, nuts, fish and vegetable oils. Eating red meat, consumption of sugary beverages and smoking are known causes of diabetes.



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